Nuclear Plants in Central Europe - other countries
Cernavoda
Location: Romania
Operator: SN Nuclearelectrica SA
Configuration: 2 X 720 MW CANDU
Operation: 1996-2007
Reactor supplier: AECL
T/G supplier: GE
EPC: AECL, Ansaldo
Quick facts: In Dec 1978, an agreement was signed between AECL and Romenergo for construction of Unit-1, followed in Jul 1981 by the agreement for Unit-2. Construction started on these two units in 1980 and 1982, respectively, while the civil works for three more units were started in 1984-86. The original agreements covered the licensing of the CANDU-6 design, equipment supply, and technical assistance. A consortium of Canadian manufacturers and contractors was formed to build the plant. Completion of Cernavoda-1 was initially scheduled for 1985, however the construction schedule slipped repeatedly as local industries failed to produce needed materiel, imports were restricted, and foreign loans dried up. Finally, work was stopped completely in 1989 to fix defective pipe welds. Following a visit from an IAEA mission in 1991, a new consortium of AECL and Italy’s Ansaldo was formed to finish Cernavoda-1. Criticality was achieved in Apr 1996, grid connection in Jul, and commercial operation in Dec. Unit-2 went commercial on 5 Oct 2007. Three additional units were in the original plan and completion of Units 3&4 is anticipated.

Photograph courtesy of SN Nuclearelectrica SA
Posted 24 Mar 2004

Kozloduy 1-4
Location: Bulgaria
Operator: Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant plc
Configuration: 4 X 440 MW PWR
Operation: 1974-1982 (ret)
Reactor supplier: AEE
T/G supplier: Kharkov, Electrosila
EPC: Promishleno, Stroitelstvo, Montaji
Quick facts: The first phase of the Kozloduy NPP consisted of two pairs of 440-MW units. On 15 Jul 1966, a cooperation agreement was signed between Bulgaria and the Soviet Union for the construction of a NPP. Following a detailed feasibility study, a site on the Danube River was selected for development. Ground-breaking was 14 Oct and construction of the main building of started on 6 Apr 1970. This is 240m long, 105m wide and 40m high and contains the reactors, turbines, ventilation system, and electrical equipment. Kozloduy NPP was the largest-ever EPC project in Bulgaria and over 100,000 workers took part. Units 1&2 were shut down in 2002 and Units 3&4 were decommissioned at the end of 2006 as agreed in Bulgaria’s EU Accession Treaty. Each unit supplied about 66 TWh to the gird in its abbreviated operational lifetime.

Photograph courtesy of Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant plc
Posted 16 Jan 2012

Kozloduy 5&6
Location: Bulgaria
Operator: Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant plc
Configuration: 2 X 1,000 MW PWR
Operation: 1988-1993
Reactor supplier: AEE
T/G supplier: LMZ, Electrosila
EPC: Promishleno, Stroitelstvo, Montaji
Quick facts: Kozloduy is the only nuclear power plant in Bulgaria and supplies about a third of the country's electricity. The operating company is entirely state-owned. With about 4,700 employees, Kozloduy is one of the major employers in Bulgaria. A full-scope modernization program for Units 5&6 was completed in 2008, the first and at present the only program of its kind. The two units set an output record of 16.3 TWh in 2011.

Photograph courtesy of Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant plc
Re-posted 16 Jan 2012

Paks
Location: Hungary
Operator: Paksi Atomeromu Rt
Configuration: 3 X 500 MW, 1 X 510 MW PWR
Operation: 1983-1987
Reactor supplier: AEE
T/G supplier: Kharkov
Quick facts: Paksi Atomeromu is a state-owned company founded in 1976 and converted to a share company in 1992. The four VVER440/V213 reactors are sited in central Hungary, 5km from the town of Paks. The plant typically supplies over 40% of Hungary’s electric power and the Paks units were among the first in Central Europe to be upgraded to Western safety standards, in part due to the installation of a simulator developed with the assistance of Finnish specialists. The maintenance training center completed in 1997 is unique in that the reactor, steam generator, circulating pumps, isolating valves, and other equipment are original factory-manufactured pieces obtained from terminated plants and other sources. All four Paks units were progressively uprated from the orginal 440-MW rating to 500-MW and are being uprated again to about 510 MW. Plant production in 2016 was 15.05 TWh, an all-time site record.

Photograph courtesy of Paksi Atomeromu Rt
Posted 8 Nov 2003

Zarnowiec
Location: Poland
Operator: Zarnowiec NPP
Configuration: 4 X 465 MW PWR
Operation: n/a (cancelled)
Reactor supplier: AEE, Skoda
T/G supplier: BBC
T/G supplier: St Petersburg Atomenergoproekt, Energoblok-Wybrzeże
Quick facts: This plant was developed on a 432ac site on Lake Zarnowiec in far northern Poland. This is a 1,400ha glacial lake in the Piasnica River basin, 5km from the Baltic. The first unit was ordered in 1974 and three more ordered in 1983. Construction got underway on two blocks on 1 Jan 1983 and proceeded fitfully until Apr 1990 when the project was terminated following a public referendum. The NPP was to be built in tandem with the 720-MW Zarnowiec a pumped-storage power station that uses the lake as a lower reservoir. The PSP plant was completed in 1983 after 7yrs of construction. A new NPP plant has been proposed for much the same location.

Photograph courtesy of www.mikofoto.net
Posted 27 Jan 2011

Abbreviations

Data: industcards, Platts UDI World Electric Power Plants Data Base

Updated 18-Feb-2017

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